Who is Bruno?

Bruno Škvorc is Technical Educator at Web3 Foundation. He is a blockchain developer and code auditor from Croatia with Master’s Degrees in Computer Science and English Language and Literature. PHP expert, he wrote “Jump Start PHP Environment “.
During the night, he runs RMRK, the team behind the only NFT standard and platform on Kusama Network and other Substrate chains. When he has free time, he tries to do sports or hang out in video games, particularly VR.


  • Kanaria - a Kusama-native collection of NFTs that bring functional benefits, conditional rendering, and reactive NFTs to the table
  • RMRK.app* - a way to mint and trade NFTs on Kusama, a blockchain which has no native support for NFTs or smart contracts
  • HaveIBeenSold.app - check if your personal data has been sold
  • Nameth.io - buy a mydomain.dev.eth subdomain and other subdomains that never expire
  • Bitfalls.com - an Ethereum and Web3 education website
  • DotLeap.com - a Web3 and Substrate education website
  • Dot Leap Newsletter - The most comprehensive newsletter about Web3's technological progress and ecosystem updates


Q: Keen to learn from Bruno what his daily/weekly routine is for work & play? --- by pk | ID-386683260169879562 A: These days there is no play, unfortunately. I love VR and gaming when I can find the time, but I haven’t been able to for a long time. So my current routine is - wake up at 5 or 6am, take my kid to daycare, come back and get to work until 6pm or so, sometimes later. Nothing thrilling :)

Q: Why isn’t it possible to create a smart contract on Polkadot. Why this choice? --- by 0KaW3b
A: Polkadot is a chain which is meant to connect other chains. This takes a lot of computational power, so it can’t have other things on this chain which might slow down its primary mission - cross chain communication. This is why polkadot allows smart contract chains to connect to other chains through it, but does not have smart contracts on itself.

Q: Where do you see yourself in a year? --- by Drusilla

A: In my garden, watching my daughter play with my dog as I code something for fun.

Q: According to the NFT Strategy for Kusama here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hflIRKG207uuWkE13lZbFBaf6f4qF_3uvsctNoZFH0o/edit The point that grabbed my attention is: --> Mint NFTs - Artists should have the ability to mint NFTs from a user-friendly Gallery interface. Using PolkadotAssetsJS will be considered for this purpose. At the moment one of the worst issues of the NFT world are the ETH gas fees, since those are definitely not user friendly. How would you plan to face such a problem? --- by ErmetiQ

A: There is no gas problem on Kusama. Minting costs $1 now, and when the fee-reduction runtime upgrade happens in a week or so the fees will go down 50x, so only 2 cents to mint. This is not going to be a problem for a long time, especially because there will be other chains with and without smart contracts using RMRK NFTs and distributing the load, keeping everything cheap for a very, very long time.

Q: According to the interactions available here: https://github.com/rmrk-team/rmrk-spec Will be possible to create an NFT collection of multiple items? In Raible for instance is possible to create multiple copies of the same item (for example one card multiplied *100 that can be sold indeed 100 times). This might be a crucial aspect of NFT minting. --- by ErmetiQ

A: An NFT by definition has a different serial number than any other NFT in the same collection - even on rarible. So this is already possible on RMRK, and is how we minted all the Kanaria eggs on kanaria.rmrk.app - they are all identical, but have different serial numbers and are part of the same collection.

Q: Royalties. Before minting an NFT will be possible to set a future reselling royalty on it? On such a matter, an NFT after the resell could increase its value. --- by ErmetiQ

A: Yes, there’s a PR in the specification for royalties, we’re working on something like that.

Q: Verification. Will be available a way to "Verify" a possible artist/user? --- by ErmetiQ

A: If you mean by identity, sure, some platforms will for sure offer verification. This is entirely up to the client, though, and not us who are developing the protocol. If some project or dapp decides they want to only allow verified people in and check their passports, they’re free to do that. As for on-chain verification, there already is a way to do this on Kusama - check the wiki on https://wiki.polkadot.network/docs/en/learn-identity - so apps can just check if an artist or user has a verified identity.

Q: Contests. Contests engage users, move them to put effort into a project/improve their art to gain visibility. Have you plans to set up contests with particular topics? --- by ErmetiQ

A: Yes, we have an official list of contests and giveaways here: https://app.subsocial.network/@rmrkapp/kanaria-contests-and-giveaways-list-11014

Q: According to https://github.com/rmrk-team/rmrk-spec RMRK.app will grant the possibility to grant a great interaction between the NFTs, and that's pretty much revolutionary. We've seen that matter on other projects like polkamon, although on the ETH chain. Will Kanaria be a standalone project or a base for future ones? --- by ErmetiQ

A: Kanaria (kanaria.rmrk.app) is a standalone project, but also our ICO, and also a test for new technology which we intend to launch publicly as open source and also as a paid service. However, the hatching event of Kanaria will usher in the start of RMRK 2.0 and fully composeable, reactive, evolvable NFTs that go well beyond what’s out there and what moneygrabs like Polkamon tried to do. Imagine a digital painting of a moon which when the condition of having 50x 🚀 sent to it adds a rocket onto the moon. Another example is being in control of an NFT that is placed somewhere, like a billboard in a virtual world. The owner can put the billboard’s space up for sale and anyone who buys it can send the billboard’s texture into the billboard NFT. The owner can then tell the billboard to EQUIP this texture, thus displaying it. Yet another example is something as banal as checking if the current block number is even or odd and having the NFT display something different based on that. A collection could exist which represents real-world coordinates as each of its NFTs. Each such “land” NFT could then also EQUIP another NFT to show there - from 3D models to 2D floor textures and tiles. Other on-chain parameters and values can also be extracted, parametrized, and used within the conditional rendering logic of the NFTs.

All of this is possible with RMRK 2.0.

Q: How did you discover the Polkadot project? --- by Drusilla

A: I was looking to leave Status and started looking around for open positions in the space. An ex-colleague from Status told me about W3F and so I started learning, then I applied, and the rest is history :)

I would like to thank all the people who have contributed with the questions and obviously to Bruno for his availability and kindness.

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